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7ème édition des Journées Scientifiques 2iE

(2013) - Rapport - 2IE
Page numérisée (434/572)
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how the batteries are charged and what element (batteries or diesel generator) have priority to supply energy when the load exceeds the energy generated from renewable sources[2] .

There are also many conditions[5] like Diesel generators operating near their optimal point (70 80%), necessity to maximize the power coming from solar panel, etc.

That is why; the power control strategy plays an important role in the optimum design and efficient utilization of hybrid energy systems.

The power available and the overall lifetime of system components are highly affected by power control strategy [6].

· The problem in PV/Diesel hybrid systems becomes complicated through uncertain renewable energy supplies and load demand, non linear characteristics of some components, and the fact that optimum operation strategies and optimum sizing of hybrid system components are interdependent [7], [1].

· In the PV/diesel hybrid systems, fluctuating PV power causes frequency deviations when large PV power is penetrated in the isolated utility: usually, the battery is mainly used to smooth the PV power fluctuations by following moving point average law[8].

The system frequency regulation and voltage control always depends on the diesel generator.

Hence, these types of conventional methods cannot control PV power corresponding to power system condition and insolation variations.

· There is also noticed problem of high voltage distortion with unbalanced and/or nonlinear loads.

All these difficulties are resumed as the cost effective, the reliable design and the appropriate operation problems.

As indicated in [7], resolve them is very important. Thus the issue is to find the optimal techno economic PV/Diesel hybrid system.

3.

Different optimization problems Due to the fact that PV/battery/diesel hybrid configuration has advantages of flexibility, system load can be met in the optimal way; diesel efficiency can be maximized; diesel maintenance can be minimized; and a reduction in the capacities of diesel and battery (while matching the peak loads) can occur.

The optimal Power Management System [6], the minimal cost of the system, minimal unmet loads, minimal fuel emission[12,16], the optimal configuration that meets the autonomy constraint (no loss of load) and the minimization of the battery storage [10]are the optimizations problems commonly encountered in the literature.

For example, it is well known that batteries are used to meet the transient load and to avoid power fluctuations, so how to minimize them? Studied by Shaadid [11] in the case of at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; while focalize herself on minimizing also the operation/contribution of diesel system, he suggests that for optimum use of battery storage and for optimum operation of diesel system, battery storage of 12­18 h days can be used for design purposes.

Two parameters were used to characterize the role of the engine generator: denoted SDM and SAR, they are, respectively, the battery charge threshold at which it is started up, and the storage capacity threshold at which it is stopped, both expressed as a percentage of the nominal battery storage capacity of the PV/diesel hybrid system studied by [3] 411


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